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Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

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Obama Offline
it's time to obama it up

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Post: #1
Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

So, I have some science homework to do(genetics and all that), and being the system-defiant person I am, I figured i'd post the problems on here and let you all do the work for me! All I have to do is fill it in! I AM A GENIUS! By the way, I don't care what answer I get, as long as it's anything BUT "i can't answer this" or "i don't care and neither should you". Hell, i'd LOVE to confuse the hell out of my teacher with long, complicated answers!

Anyway, the problems:


1. What is a mutation?
2. How can mutations affect protein synthesis in cells?
3. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mutations.
a. Cells with mutations will always make normal proteins.
b. Some mutations occur when one nitrogen base is substituted for another.
c. Some mutations occur when chromosomes don't separate correctly during meiosis.
4. Mutations can be a source of genetic _____________.
5. Is the following sentence true or false? All mutations are harmful. ___________
6. Mutations that are ___________ improve an organism's chances for survival and reproduction.
7. Whether mutation is harmful or helpful depends partly on an organism's ____________.

Yes, I know, these are short and easy questions. However, you have no idea how much I hate my school system. I'd do the same thing for a 1st grader's math worksheet (1+2, 2X2, the works) if I could, just to get the edge on those fucks.

Cynicism is often seen as a rebellious attitude in Western popular culture, but in reality, our cynicism advances the desires of the powerful: cynicism is obedience.
— Alex Steffen

As a progressive, I support capitalism with some regulation; I am unschooling while working towards studying computer science and eventually college. Also a Mainer.

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12-12-2008 02:35 PM
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liq3 Offline
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Post: #2
Re: Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

Trar Wrote:5. Is the following sentence true or false? All mutations are harmful. ___________
Trar Wrote:7. Whether mutation is harmful or helpful depends partly on an organism's ____________.
Lulz. I love it when sheets do that. Answer number 5 is "false" based on 7's question.

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12-12-2008 02:44 PM
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Puchiko Offline
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Post: #3
Re: Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

All of my answers are cut&paste straight from Wikipedia. Edit it if it's a problem, but it sure is nice and complicated.
Quote:1. What is a mutation?
In biology, mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism.
Quote:2. How can mutations affect protein synthesis in cells?
Changes in DNA caused by mutation can cause errors in protein sequence, creating partially or completely non-functional proteins. To function correctly, each cell depends on thousands of proteins to function in the right places at the right times. When a mutation alters a protein that plays a critical role in the body, a medical condition can result. A condition caused by mutations in one or more genes is called a genetic disorder. Some mutations alter a gene's DNA base sequence but do not change the function of the protein made by the gene. Studies in the fly Drosophila melanogaster suggest that if a mutation does change a protein, this will probably be harmful, with about 70 percent of these mutations having damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or weakly beneficial.

If a mutation is present in a germ cell, it can give rise to offspring that carries the mutation in all of its cells. This is the case in hereditary diseases. On the other hand, a mutation can occur in a somatic cell of an organism. Such mutations will be present in all descendants of this cell, and certain mutations can cause the cell to become malignant, and thus cause cancer.


Quote:3. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mutations.
a. Cells with mutations will always make normal proteins.
b. Some mutations occur when one nitrogen base is substituted for another.
c. Some mutations occur when chromosomes don't separate correctly during meiosis.
a is obviously false, based on question two, and c is definitely correct. I'm not sure about b.
Quote:4. Mutations can be a source of genetic _____________.
DISEASES
Quote:5. Is the following sentence true or false? All mutations are harmful. ___________
FALSE, as liq3 said.
Quote:6. Mutations that are ___________ improve an organism's chances for survival and reproduction.
BENEFICIAL or ADVANTAGEOUS
Quote:7. Whether mutation is harmful or helpful depends partly on an organism's ____________.
Um, HABITAT? Just guessing.

Don't take life so seriously, it isn't permanent.
12-13-2008 04:21 AM
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Michio-kun Offline
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Re: Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

Everything Puchiko said, also 7. should be environment, not habitat (even though they're kind of the same thing, but your teacher might mark habitat wrong). Wink

6. is beneficial

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12-13-2008 05:27 AM
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Obama Offline
it's time to obama it up

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Post: #5
Re: Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

I have some more homework on the same subject. You know what to do!

----

1. What is the relationship betweeen a gene, a DNA molecule, and a protein?

2. How does a DNA molecule determine the structure of a specific protein?

3. The DNA base sequence GGG codes for the amino acid proline. Could this same base sequence code for a different amino acid? Why or why not?

4. List the sequence of events that happens during protein synthesis.

5. What is messenger RNA? Describe how it performs its function.

6. Does transfer RNA perform its function in the nucleus or the cytoplasm? Explain your answer.

7. How does a mutation in a gene affect the order in it's DNA bases?

8. How can a mutation in a gene cause a change in an organism's phenotype?

Cynicism is often seen as a rebellious attitude in Western popular culture, but in reality, our cynicism advances the desires of the powerful: cynicism is obedience.
— Alex Steffen

As a progressive, I support capitalism with some regulation; I am unschooling while working towards studying computer science and eventually college. Also a Mainer.

[Image: 3151.png]

Trar's Mental Health Log:
Hidden stuff:

[Image: President_Barack_Obama.jpg]

12-17-2008 06:08 AM
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Puchiko Offline
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Re: Science Homework (On Genetics) Help!

Trar Wrote:2. How does a DNA molecule determine the structure of a specific protein?
The sequence of the different amino acids is called the primary structure of the peptide or protein. Counting of residues always starts at the N-terminal end (NH2-group), which is the end where the amino group is not involved in a peptide bond. The primary structure of a protein is determined by the gene corresponding to the protein. A specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is read by the ribosome in a process called translation. The sequence of a protein is unique to that protein, and defines the structure and function of the protein. The sequence of a protein can be determined by methods such as Edman degradation or tandem mass spectrometry. Often however, it is read directly from the sequence of the gene using the genetic code. Post-transcriptional modifications such as disulfide formation, phosphorylations and glycosylations are usually also considered a part of the primary structure, and cannot be read from the gene.

Quote:4. List the sequence of events that happens during protein synthesis.
[list]
[*]Transcription - Protein synthesis starts in the nucleus, where the DNA is held. DNA structure is two chains of sugars and phosphates joined by pairs of nucleotides deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, thymidine, and deoxycytidine. Similar to DNA replication, the DNA is "unzipped" by the enzyme helicase, leaving the single nucleotide chain open to be copied. RNA polymerase reads the DNA strand, and synthesizes a single strand of messenger RNA (mRNA). This single strand of mRNA leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores, and migrates into the cytoplasm where it joins with ribosomes.Where protein synthesis occurs by the formation of peptide bonds and polypeptide chains.
Note: in the new RNA strand, the nucleotide uridine takes the place of thymidine.

[*]Translation - the process of converting the mRNA codon sequences into an amino acid polypeptide chain.

1. Initiation - A ribosome attaches to the mRNA and starts to code at the FMet codon (usually AUG, sometimes GUG or UUG).

2. Elongation - tRNA brings the corresponding amino acid to each codon as the ribosome moves down the mRNA strand.

3. Termination - Reading of the final mRNA codon (aka the STOP codon), which ends the synthesis of the peptide chain and releases it.[/list:u]

Quote:5. What is messenger RNA? Describe how it performs its function.
Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is a molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein. In mRNA as in DNA, genetic information is encoded in the sequence of nucleotides arranged into codons consisting of three bases each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons that terminate protein synthesis. This process requires two other types of RNA: transfer RNA (tRNA) mediates recognition of the codon and provides the corresponding amino acid, while ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the central component of the ribosome's protein manufacturing machinery.
Quote:6. Does transfer RNA perform its function in the nucleus or the cytoplasm? Explain your answer.
CYTOPLASM, don't know why.

So, yeah, I didn't help much with this one, but... I'm not paid for it or anything so... Wasntme
Good luck with the rest Wink

Don't take life so seriously, it isn't permanent.
12-17-2008 06:42 AM
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